The procedure for the recovery of possession of premises in Cameroon is regulated by the Recovery of Premises Ordinance CAP 193 , 1948 , OHADA Uniform Act , Code de Procedure Civile et Commerciale and Civil Code. Focus shall be on the procedure and the required landlord quit notice to tenant for the recovery of premises reason why a landlord tenant agreement is indispensable so as to secure tenant’s right .

The objectives for the enactment of these laws  include:

  1. To regulates the relationship between landlords and tenants
  2. To prevent arbitrary increment of rents
  3. To prevent unlawful eviction of tenants
  4. To prevent  illegally holding over by tenants .

The Court of First Instance  and the High Court shall have jurisdiction to entertain recovery of possession cases in Cameroon

Landlord Quit Notice to tenant

The procedure for recovery of premises is technical and strict and a breach of it will result inevitably to a nullity of the whole proceeding, The first procedure is the service of the landlord quit notice to tenant. The landlord quit notice to tenant must be served personally on the tenant or by substituted service by pasting a copy of the landlord quit notice to tenant on a conspicuous part of the premises sought to be recovered and such shall be deemed good service.

landlord tenant agreement

The landlord tenant agreement expressly stipulate the length of the landlord quit notice to tenant . Where there is no express stipulation as to the length of notice to be given by any of the party in the landlord tenant agreement , the period of notice shall be determine as follows;

  1. In a case of a tenancy at will – 1 week notice
  2. In a case of a monthly tenancy -1 month notice
  3. In a case of quarterly tenancy – a quarterly notice
  4. In a case of a yearly tenancy Рhalf  a year notice

In the absence of the landlord tenant agreement , the nature of tenancy shall be determined by reference to the mode of rent payment. The landlord tenant agreement clears a lot of uncertainties and doubts in the mind of the court.

Content of notice to quit

A valid notice to quit must state the following :

  1. The tenant should quit and deliver up possession of the premises
  2. The situation of the premises
  3. The kind of tenancy
  4. The date of commencement and expiration as in the landlord tenant agreement
  5. The date the notice to quit is to expire
  6. The Landlord quit notice to tenant must be dated and signed

The next procedure is for the landlord legal practitioner to serve a notice to tenant of owners intention to apply to recover possession on expiry of the landlord quit notice to tenant.  Service of the statutory notices is a precondition to the institution of proceedings between landlord and tenant for recovery of premises. If at the expiration of the time which is usually 7 days as stated in the owners notice of his intention to recover possession and the tenant fails , refuses or neglects to quit as demanded , the landlord through his legal practitioner can now file a plaint or writ at the appropriate court in the  jurisdiction where the premises is situated.

Grounds for Recovery of Premises

  1. Breach of an express agreement in the landlord tenant agreement
  2. Arrears of rents
  3. If the premises require substantial repairs
  4. The premises is required by the landlord for occupation of himself , any son or daughter of his over 18.

A landlord must serve the above statutory notices and avoid resorting to self help (Police  , change of door locks , Zinc removal etc). The only avenue open to a landlord who has a recalcitrant  tenant is to seek redress in court.

Tenant’s Right

A tenant enjoys a number of rights to the dissatisfaction of the landlord to wit :-

  1. A tenant can maintain an action for trespass against the landlord
  2. A tenant can obtain an injunction to restrain his landlord ejecting him illegally (self help)
  3. Tenant’s Right to be served statutory stipulated notice to quit
  4. A tenant’s Right to question landlord authority to increase rent

To conclude , We recommend legal practitioner to manages large estate on behalf of landlord , prepare and serve statutory notices ,¬†¬† ensure¬† payment of rents timely, draft landlord tenant agreement and evict without violating tenant’s right.

An Article by Bar. Mafany Victor Ngando

Kinsmen Advocates

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.